Clinical and Genomic Epidemiology of mcr-9-Carrying Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacterales Isolates in Metropolitan Atlanta, 2012 to 2017.
Colistin is a last-resort antibiotic for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections. Recently, the ninth allele of the mobile colistin resistance (mcr) gene family, designated mcr-9, was reported. However, its clinical and public health significance remains unclear. We queried genomes of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) for mcr-9 from a convenience sample of clinical isolates collected between 2012 and 2017 through the Georgia Emerging Infections Program, a population- and laboratory-based surveillance program. Isolates underwent phenotypic characterization and whole-genome sequencing. Phenotypic characteristics, genomic features, and clinical outcomes of mcr-9-positive and -negative CRE cases were then compared. Among 235 sequenced CRE genomes, 13 (6%) were found to harbor mcr-9, all of which were Enterobacter cloacae complex. The median MIC and rates of heteroresistance and inducible resistance to colistin were similar between mcr-9-positive and -negative isolates. However, rates of resistance were higher among mcr-9-positive isolates across most antibiotic classes. All cases had significant health care exposures. The 90-day mortality was similarly high in both mcr-9-positive (31%) and -negative (7%) CRE cases. Nucleotide identity and phylogenetic analysis did not reveal geotemporal clustering. mcr-9-positive isolates had a significantly higher number of median [range] antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes (16 [4 to 22] versus 6 [2 to 15]; P < 0.001) than did mcr-9-negative isolates. Pangenome tests confirmed a significant association of mcr-9 detection with mobile genetic element and heavy metal resistance genes. Overall, the presence of mcr-9 was not associated with significant changes in colistin resistance or clinical outcomes, but continued genomic surveillance to monitor for emergence of AMR genes is warranted.
Babiker, A., Bower, C., Lutgring, J. D., Petit, R. A., 3rd, Howard-Anderson, J., Ansari, U., McAllister, G., Adamczyk, M., Breaker, E., Satola, S. W., Jacob, J. T., & Woodworth, M. H. Clinical and Genomic Epidemiology of mcr-9-Carrying Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacterales Isolates in Metropolitan Atlanta, 2012 to 2017. Microbiology Spectrum, 10(4), e0252221. (2022))